Unhealthy dietary patterns represented more than 80% of the hidden costs in wealthier nations. Left unchecked, the hidden costs generated by agrifood systems activities will depress future growth and development. This contrasts with $177 billion of hidden costs in France and $23 billion in Ireland. Consequently, the measured hidden costs represent the reduction in welfare due to a decline in purchasing power. The 2023 UN Climate Change Conference (COP28) in Dubai starts in December, and it has an increased focus on agrifood systems.