The research team projected Brazil's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions up to 2050 under different policy scenarios through an integrated modelling approach. This compared the potential emissions reductions resulting from nature-based solutions (including large-scale restoration) against engineered solutions, such as bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), besides their relative economic costs. The results indicated that nature-based solutions could mitigate nearly 80% of Brazil's net zero pledge and reduce 781 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) on average per year in Brazil during the next 30 years. The country's energy sector already has a significant share of renewables and its contribution to Brazil's net zero ambition would heavily rely on BECCS. The study ‘Nature-based solutions are critical for putting Brazil on track towards net zero emissions by 2050’ has been published in Global Change Biology.