Phd Student In Electrical Engineering Or Applied Physics

Universities and Institutes of France
November 30, 2022
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Offerd Salary:Negotiation
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Contract Type:Temporary
Working Time:Full time
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  • Organisation/Company: Ecole supérieure de physique et de chimie industrielles de la ville de Paris
  • Research Field: Biological sciences Chemistry Physics › Solid state physics
  • Researcher Profile: First Stage Researcher (R1)
  • Application Deadline: 30/11/2022 00:00 - Europe/Brussels
  • Location: France › Paris
  • Type Of Contract: Temporary
  • Job Status: Full-time
  • Hours Per Week: 35
  • Offer Starting Date: 01/12/2022
  • Eu Research Framework Programme: H2020
  • Reference Number: HORIZON-CL5-2021-D3-02-09, GA 101075602
  • Electrical energy is an indispensable commodity in our daily lives. Before consuming the energy, it is necessary to transport it from the power plant. Although the transport of electrical energy seems simple in the collective consciousness, just a few electrical wires, this does not correspond at all to the challenges of today and tomorrow. Indeed, the need for electric energy is continuously increasing, losses are no longer acceptable in the context of global warming and, to a lesser extent, neither the overhead line corridors through our countryside. Dielectric losses can be eliminated by using from AC to DC. Since the power carried is the product of the voltage and the current, increasing the voltage reduces the current for a given power and as well the Joule effect losses. However, as it is not possible to increase the voltage indefinitely, Joule losses remain significant and prevent large distance from power plant to consumption place.

    One way to drastically reduce the Joule effect losses is to use superconducting material instead of copper to conduct the current. Superconducting materials conduct the current without resistance and therefore without Joule effect. However, superconducting materials only work at low temperatures, which requires cooling the conductor and therefore spending energy. Within the framework of the European BESTPATHS project, it has been demonstrated that beyond a hundred kilometers, superconducting cables consume less energy than conventional cables, but above all, they are capable of transporting much more energy with an environmental footprint that is almost ten times smaller. This would allow the construction of energy transmission highways across continents, taking advantage of the abundant winds in northern countries or off the coasts and the abundant sunshine in the deserts near the equator. However, this demonstration was made with a mixed cooling system using liquid nitrogen and helium gas, which is not suitable for a viable industrial deployment because helium is a scarce gas. The aim of the European SCARLET project is to validate a new technology using liquid hydrogen rather than gaseous helium.

    If superconducting materials are able to conduct a lot of current, they must be brought to a high enough voltage to carry enough energy. However, under high voltage, insulators are far from perfect, and charges can be injected into them and become permanently trapped. The electric field produced by these charges is then superimposed on the applied field; the total field is therefore likely to exceed the dielectric breakdown field and thus lead to the breakdown of the insulator, rendering the installation out of order. Knowing that an exceeding electron over a billion molecules can produce this effect, it is absolutely essential to study and characterize the insulation material of a power transmission line before anything else.

    The objective of the thesis is to study and analyze the material, knowing that nothing is known about liquid hydrogen at 20 K flowing and impregnating various materials. The instrumentation group of the LPEM of ESPCI is at the forefront in the field of measurement of electric charge and field distributions in materials. In particular, it has developed many specific instruments in cryogenic environment and many methods of signal analysis, especially for complex structures. It is for this reason that he was chosen by the consortium to characterize the insulating part of the superconducting cable in the European project SCARLET. In the framework of his work, the PhD student will develop and use cryogenic measurement benches to determine the breakdown voltage of liquid hydrogen, to measure and analyze the charge distribution in high voltage structures impregnated by liquid hydrogen and to evaluate the effect of electrification by liquid hydrogen flow on the solid materials of the cable.

    This is an experimental physics thesis with a design and signal processing parts. In addition to publications, the European nature of the project requires a good knowledge of English to exchange with partners.

    Required Research Experiences
  • RESEARCH FIELD
  • Physics › Solid state physics

  • YEARS OF RESEARCH EXPERIENCE
  • 1 - 4

    Offer Requirements
  • REQUIRED EDUCATION LEVEL
  • Engineering: Master Degree or equivalent

  • REQUIRED LANGUAGES
  • FRENCH: Good

    Skills/Qualifications

    Skills in instrumentation, electronic properties of materials, signal processing, basic electronics and, if possible, ultrasound.

    Skills in computer processing tools (Matlab or Python) and scientific production tools (word processing, spreadsheet, drawing).

    Good English level, bibliography searching/

    Autonomous and self critical analysis.

    Taste for design and realization.

    Contact Information
  • Organisation/Company: Ecole supérieure de physique et de chimie industrielles de la ville de Paris
  • Organisation Type: Public Research Institution
  • Website: https: // www. espci.fr/fr/
  • Country: France
  • City: Paris
  • Postal Code: 75005
  • Street: 10 rue Vauquelin
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