PhD THESIS in Chemical Engineering at University of Toulouse - France
The project CAPRI ( Hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation for intensified processes ) is supported by the National Agency for Research.
The process industries are currently undergoing rapid evolution principally due to the recent global crises, which have driven the French government to incite companies to take position with respect to re-industrialisation. The objective is not only to make France self-sufficient and become independent for the production of certain commodities, but also to consider amounting environmental constraints and regulations.
This offers an opportunity to integrate new modes or methods of production, whereby innovative process engineering is required. Process intensification methods have been a focus of many chemical engineering studies for several years and a number of these are ready to (or already are being) integrated into industrial processes. Hence, this is a highly favorable situation to integrate new production units with novel equipment and/or operational modes into French industry rapidly.
Amongst the different means for process intensification, a promising equipment type is that based on cavitation phenomena. Cavitation involves the creation, the growth and the implosion of gas bubbles, which liberated large quantities of energy in vary small volumes, result in very high specific energy. Cavitation occurs simultaneously at millions of locations in the cavitational reactor and results in very high local temperatures and pressures. Two types of cavitation exist depending on the way that cavitation is induced: acoustic cavitation (AC), which relies on ultrasound, and hydrodynamic cavitation (HC), which occurs when a low-pressure region forms in a flow, e.g. when a fluid flows through an orifice or similar. There are a significant number of studies on AC in the current literature that focus on chemical reaction applications, i.e. sonochemistry, as well as the fundamental understanding of the cavitation phenomena using experimental and numerical approaches. However, the engineering design of these reactors has been rarely considered. The potential of HC for applications in the process industries has only been addressed more recently and studies demonstrate applications in various domains (food, water treatment, biofuels…) with low energy consumption. Nevertheless, the influence of operating conditions on the phenomena and their impact on process performance is still not fully understood. Furthermore, there are only a few comparisons in the literature of AC and HC reactors in the current literature. These principally focus on chemical reaction performance and rarely address the link between process performance and energy dissipation or cavitation mechanisms, nor the impact of engineering design and process parameters. No studies employ a multiscale approach to understand the link between the underlying mechanisms of the cavitation phenomena, the engineering design of the reactors and the process outcome.
The objective of the CAPRI project is to identify and compare key phenomena of acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation, to draw analogies between the two and then to evaluate their impact on the intensification of different chemical and physical processes. Pragmatically, the project should lead to recommendations on the type of cavitation mode to use depending on the desired process objectives and to specify the most adequate operating conditions.
The project is based on an experimental study carried out on using two continuous cavitation systemsemploying HC and AC. It will be carried out in the Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, INP- University ofToulouse (France).
Candidate profile: MSc in Chemical Engineering - Salary: 2200 € (gross salary) - (duration 3 years) ; Starting date: 1er January 2023Offer Requirements
Engineering: Master Degree or equivalentSkills/Qualifications
MSc in Chemical engineering or Process engineeringSpecific Requirements
Be comfortable with experimental studiesContact Information